Quran has a number of ethical concepts such as sabr (endurance), ihsan (beautiful acts), taqwa (preservation) and others. These concepts are unique in their own ways and help us understand Quran’s overall teachings. One of the most prominent concepts in Quran is that that or fairness (‘adl).
The verse we will look at to exemplify this principle is Ch 4 Vs 58 which says:
Allah commands you to render back the trusts to those to whom they are due; And when you judge between the people, that you judge with fairness: Verily how excellent is the teaching which He gives you! For Allah is He Who hears and sees all things.
The sentence we are considering is in the middle of the whole verse – And when you judge between the people, that you judge with fairness. It is very clear here that it is the people who are being talked about. There is no race, religion/ideology, class being mentioned at all. The word ‘’adl’ has been used in various forms to mean ‘make equal’ (like in 6/1) and so equality is the connotation of fairness here. We are to judge everyone equitably.
The first part of the of the verse tells us about the connotation of fairness. We are to render back trusts to those for whom they are due. Given that this passage (4/47-58) is directed at those who have been given the system, this must relate back to those within the system. Every social system must have tasks with which people are entrusted. We are to return these trusts o the appropriate people. This will lead to the fairness subsequently mentioned.
The next part of the verse is also quite unique. It tells us the beauty of this teaching. Beauty is something we can immediately perceive and we can verify this statement easily by seeing how the world is constantly upon the concept of fairness. It is not easy for a politician to say that he rejects fairness, for example. This is the beautiful teaching of Quran.